# 抽象代数作业代写| Groups. First examples.

1. Groups

Last time we have introduced laws of composition $(S, )$ and defined what it means for $$to be associative/commutative and to admit an identity. Compare the following proposition to problem #5 from the first homework. 2. Proposition 1 Let (S, *) be a set with an associative composition law and identity. Let x, y \in S be two invertible elements, then x * y is also invertible with (x * y)^{-1}=y^{-1} * x^{-1} Proof. Indeed, we have$$
(x * y) *\left(y^{-1} * x^{-1}\right)=x *\left(y * y^{-1}\right) * x^{-1}=x * e * x^{-1}=x * x^{-1}=e
$$where in the first equality we used associativity, in the second the fact that y^{-1} is the inverse of y, in the third the property of the identity e, and in the last the fact that x^{-1} is the inverse of x . Similarly we check that \left(y^{-1} * x^{-1}\right) *(x * y)=e which proves that \left(y^{-1} * x^{-1}\right)=(x * y)^{-1}. 3. Definition of a group Groups is one of the most fundamental notions in mathematics. Whenever you have an object (of any nature) admitting symmetries, there is a group lurking behind. 4. Example 1: Key motivating example Let \Delta be an equilateral triangle. Then there 6 rigid motions mapping \Delta onto itself, i.e., bijections f: \Delta \rightarrow \Delta preserving the distances between points: • 3 rotations – by 0^{\circ}, 120^{\circ} and 240^{\circ} (denote them \mu_{0}, \mu_{1}, \mu_{2} ) • 3 reflections along 3 altitudes l_{1}, l_{2}, l_{3} (denote the reflection by \sigma_{1}, \sigma_{2}, \sigma_{3} ). We claim that the composition operation on the set \left{\mu_{0}, \mu_{1}, \mu_{2}, \sigma_{1}, \sigma_{2}, \sigma_{3}\right} defines a law of composition (exercise). Problem 1: Prove that the above law of composition is associative, has an identity and every element admits an inverse. Show that it is not commutative. 5. Definition 1 Let (G, *) be a set with a law of composition. We will say that (G, *) is a group if the following properties hold: (\mathrm{G} 1) * is associative (G2) there is an identity e \in G (G3) every element x \in G is invertible. 6. Definition 2 A group (G, ) is commutative or abelian if$$ is commutative.

7. Proposition 2: Cancellation law

If $(G, *)$ is a group and $x, y, z \in G$ are elements such that

$$x * y=x * z$$

then $y=z$, i.e., we can cancel out $x$ from the both sides.

Proof. Let us multiply both sides of the above identity by $x^{-1}$ from the left. Then we will have

$$x^{-1} * x * y=x^{-1} * x * z .$$

Due to associativity we do not have to specify the brackets and can perform multiplication in any order we like (without swapping the elements). Then on both sides we have $x^{-1} * x=e$, so

$$e * y=e * z$$

Now, due to the definition of $e$, we have $y=z$.

8. Remark 1

For $n \in \mathbb{Z}$ we will write

$$x^{n}:=\underbrace{x * x * \cdots * x}_{n \text { times }}$$

if $n>0$ and

$$x^{n}:=(\underbrace{x * x * \cdots * x}_{-n \text { times }})^{-1}$$

if $n<0$. As usual, $x^{0}=e$.

Check that for $n, m \in \mathbb{Z}$ we have $\left(x^{n}\right)^{m}=\left(x^{m}\right)^{n}=x^{n m}$

To feel better the notion of a group we will need to stock on examples.

9. Example 2

$(\mathbb{Z},+)$, integers under addition form a group with the neutral element being 0 .

$(\mathbb{Z}, \times)$ is not a group, since 2 does not have a multiplicative inverse in $(\mathbb{Z}, \times) .$

$(\mathbb{R}, \times)$ is not a group, since 0 does not have a multiplicative inverse.

$(\mathbb{R} \backslash{0}, \times)$ is a group with neutral element being 1 .

$\left(\mathbb{Z}_{n},+\right)$ is a group with neutral element $[0]$.

$\left(\mathbb{Z}{n}, \times\right)$ is not a group since $[0]$ does not have a multiplicative inverse, however, similarly to the example of $(\mathbb{R} \backslash{0}, \times)$, we find that the set of units $\left(\mathbb{Z}{n}^{\times}, \times\right)$is a group.

All of the above groups are commutative.